Why Is Autism More Common in Boys

    The University of Miami leads the pursuit of a deeper understanding of autism, the disorder that is now affecting one in 54 individuals below the age of 21. 

    Collaborating with various departments, the Department of Psychology and Center for Autism and Related Disabilities researchers and clinicians delve into all aspects of ASD, exploring its biological and genetic foundations while developing innovative diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

    Understanding the symptoms of autism in children is crucial for early intervention and while symptoms can vary from child to child, certain common signs indicate the presence of autism. 

    These common signs include social struggles, avoiding eye contact, and difficulties in forming friendships or even interacting with them. Additionally, some children may not communicate effectively and will shy away from speaking openly, or will repeat words and phrases, which may hinder their speech development.

    What’s rather strange is that across various studies, researchers have consistently observed a higher prevalence of autism in boys compared to girls. Let’s  explore the matter further and see what this exactly means for the males.

    What Accounts for Higher Prevalence of Autism in Boys

    Across various studies, researchers have consistently found autism to be more common in boys. This gender difference has remained consistent regardless of the data source, including parent-reported diagnoses, reviews of school and medical records, and diagnostic evaluations of children. 

    The findings clearly indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more frequently identified in boys, highlighting the validity of this pattern across different research methodologies.

    While the exact reasons for this gender disparity are not entirely understood, researchers have identified several factors that may contribute to this phenomenon.

    Biological Differences

    There may be underlying biological or genetic factors that predispose boys to autism. Some studies suggest that certain genes associated with autism are more common in males, which could contribute to the higher incidence in boys.

    Diagnostic Bias

    There might be a diagnostic bias towards identifying autism more easily in boys. Some autistic traits may present differently in girls, making it harder to diagnose them accurately. As a result, girls with autism might be overlooked or misdiagnosed with other conditions.

    Protective Factors in Girls

    It is possible that girls have protective factors that make them more resilient to autism’s effects, i.e. they are less prone to develop the genetic mutation, or the symptoms are misinterpreted. This could lead to lower rates of diagnosis in girls compared to boys.

    Social and Cultural Factors

    Social and cultural expectations might influence how autistic behaviors are perceived and reported. Boys might be more likely to display certain behaviors associated with autism, leading to earlier identification and diagnosis.

    Hormonal Influence

    Some researchers claim that sex hormones may play a role in autism development. Testosterone, which is more prevalent in males, could influence brain development in a way that increases the risk of autism.

    Moreover, a University of Miami (UM) study reveals autism-related behaviors are more common in boys, irrespective of their autism risk. This sheds light on gender-specific aspects of autism, aiding improved diagnostics and therapies like the ABA therapy in Fort Lauderdale, Miami.

    Tracking boys and girls at high and low autism risk from 18 months, the study found one in four high-risk boys had autism by age three, compared to one in 10 high-risk girls. This disparity in male-to-female risk raises questions on gender differences in being autistic. Boys with ASD exhibited higher stereotyped behaviors and lower cognitive function compared to girls, which were also observed in non-ASD children. 

    Understanding these complexities can advance interventions for all children on the spectrum.

    The Significance of Early Autism Therapy for Children

    With approximately one in 54 individuals younger than 21 affected by autism, the increased awareness of this condition has led to the development of autism therapy programs as providing therapy offers a number of long-term advantages.

    A recent study published in the journal JAMA Pediatrics emphasizes the great benefits of initiating therapy during the first year of a child’s life, especially for those displaying early signs of autism. 

    As the brain undergoes rapid development during this critical period, timely intervention becomes crucial. The researchers found that children who received therapy and care by the age of twelve months exhibited fewer signs of autism related to social communication and repetitive actions compared to older children who did not undergo therapy.

    By commencing therapy early, we pave the way for improved developmental outcomes and enhanced social interactions, significantly impacting the child’s life trajectory.

    Multiple therapies exist to support children with autism, with recommendations tailored to each child’s age, personality, needs, and abilities, such as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), Relationship Development Intervention (RDI), Play therapy, Equestrian therapy, Speech therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Music therapy and Sensory integration.

    Wrapping Up

    The higher prevalence of autism in boys remains a complex and intriguing phenomenon. While the exact reasons for this disparity are not fully understood, factors such as biological differences, diagnostic biases, and hormonal influences may contribute. 

    Understanding these gender-related aspects of autism is crucial for improved diagnostics and interventions. 

    Research continues to shed light on this matter, bringing us closer to providing more targeted and effective support for all children on the autism spectrum, regardless of gender. And with therapy starting as early as possible, the advantages are numerous and cannot be overlooked.


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